Atkins V Virginia :: 536 U.S. 304 2002 :: Justia US Supreme Court Center

It flouts the authority of heaven and tests the ingenuity of humanity to find its haven of freedom and abundance within life itself and on the earth. Hence, such visions were not a utopos, or “no place” but a distinct “some place” with definite boundaries. Historically, attempts to locate the Garden of Eden were made repeatedly — not only symbolically but also geographically. Ponce de Leon’s pursuit of the “Fountain of Youth” is merely one of innumerable explorations that for centuries occupied the lives and claimed the fortunes of explorers. But with Christianity, this “backward look” acquired a vibrant sense of futurity — and not only because of Augustinian or Joachimite historicism. To the pagan world, the memory of a golden age elicited basically quietistic and nostalgic responses.

Sex and dating

Section was formerly classified to section 3796hh–2 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Each grantee receiving funds under this subchapter shall submit a report to the Attorney General evaluating the effectiveness of projects developed with funds provided under this subchapter and containing such additional information as the Attorney General may prescribe. Section was formerly classified to section 3796hh–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. 106–386, §1102(b)(3), inserted “State and local courts (including juvenile courts),” after “Indian tribal governments” in introductory provisions. 106–386, §§1109(c)(2), 1512(b), inserted “and dating violence, including strengthening assistance to such victims in immigration matters” before period at end. 106–386, §1102(b)(2)(A), inserted “State and local courts (including juvenile courts),” after “Indian tribal governments” in introductory provisions.

Everyone works as best as he or she can to create a common fund of goods that is parcelled out according to authentically valid needs. Radical Christian sects like the Hutterites emphasized the ethical rather than material desiderata that come with this simple communistic way of life. Communism to them was a spiritual discipline, not an economy. Later, the concept of a free, productive, communistic community draws its primary, although by no means exclusive, inspiration from economic motives that involve the fostering of self-interest (“class interest”) and technical innovation. A distinctly bourgeois spirit infuses, if not totally replaces, an ethical ideal.

The very consolidation of Christianity as an organized body of canon and dogma hung in the balance — less because of its conflicts with entrenched pagan religions than because of its own internal divisions. At the outset, the Pauline Church in Rome (from which Catholicism was to emerge) stood sharply at odds with its Jamesian counterpart in Jerusalem. The two centers of the new faith were divided not only by geography but also by conflicting views of Christianity as a world religion.

One of the principal needs these institutions satisfied was the redistribution of goods among ecologically and culturally disparate areas. Although similar functions had been performed earlier by temple storehouses on a local scale, the monarchs of ancient civilizations graduated these functions to an imperial scale. The legacy of domination thus develops as a manipulation of primordial institutions and sensibilities against each other, often by mere shifts of emphases in social reality and personal sensibility.

Word History

Technics itself tended to follow an age-old tradition of nestling closely into a local ecosystem, of adapting itself sensitively to local resources and their unique capacity to sustain life. Accordingly, it functioned as a highly specific catalyst between the people of an area and their environment. The rich knowledge of habitat — of region, local flora and fauna, soil conditions, even geology — that enabled people like the Bushmen or San to provision themselves in (as it seemed to Victorian Europe) an utter desert wasteland survived well beyond primordial times into the European Middle Ages. This high sense of the hidden natural wealth of a habitat — a knowledge that has been so completely lost to modern humanity — kept the latent exploitative powers of technics well within the institutional, moral, and mutualistic boundaries of the local community.

Vengeance, not hope, was the poor man’s notion of settling his accounts with his oppressor. The Joachimite “financial” interpretation of brotherly love carried Christian eschatology beyond the confines of the Augustinian position into a distinctly secular social philosophy and movement. The social theories of Machiavelli, Hobbes, and Locke owe their secular quality to the assimilation of “other-worldliness” to “this-worldliness,” a process that begins with John of Salisbury and Joachim of Fiore. Christian social theory, particularly its radical wing, had overcome the duality between heaven and earth on which Pauline Christianity had been nourished.

To the contrary, it made them outrageously worldly in character. In the twelfth century, John of Salisbury bluntly turned his back on the feudal hierarchy of his day, a hierarchy based on the unquestioning obedience of ruled to ruler, and proceeded to explore the validity of governance by law. Tyranny — by which John meant the disregard of law as dictated by the people — was beyond legitimation and could be overthrown by force. This far-reaching, avowedly revolutionary position was drawn not from the Christian father Augustine, but from the republican theorist Cicero. Its medievalistic references to “princes” and “kings” aside, it had a distinctly republican ring.

What If the Patient Is No Longer under the Care of the Doctor?

It should be seen more as a graded process, as an emerging process of self-realization, than as a series of physical displacements. Accordingly, matter, which always has varying degrees of form, is latent with potentiality — indeed, it is imbued by a nisus to elaborate its potentiality for greater form. Here, their subdued adherence to Marxism became a major obstacle to what otherwise could have been a superbly comprehensive critique of instrumental reason. They were too afraid to cement their view of nature to subjectivity — a commitment they identified with mythic and classical archaisms. Hence they never provided a meaningful objective matrix for reason.

What we today call “mind” in all its human uniqueness, self-possession, and imaginative possibilities is coterminous with a long evolution of mind. Subjectivity has not always been absent from the course of organic and inorganic development until the emergence of humanity. To the contrary, it has always been present, in varying degrees, throughout natural history, but as increasingly close approximations of the human mind as we know it today. To deny the existence of subjectivity in nonhuman nature is to deny that it can exist either in its given human form or in any form at all. So richly textured and articulated a society assumed as a matter of course that material need could not be separated from ethical precept.

(3) To provide operational and technical assistance and training concerning tools, products, resources, guidelines, and procedures to aid and enhance criminal intelligence analysis, conduct cyber crime and financial crime investigations, and related justice information sharing at the local and State levels. Grants awarded under this section shall be used to facilitate or enhance and 1 collaboration between the criminal justice, child welfare, and State, territorial, or Tribal substance abuse systems in order to carry out programs to address the use of methamphetamine drugs by pregnant and parenting women offenders. “(3) Cooperative programs.—The establishment and expansion of cooperative efforts to promote public safety through the use of effective intervention with respect to mentally ill individuals encountered by members of the uniformed services.” To request a grant under this subsection, a State, unit of local government, territory, Indian Tribe, or nonprofit agency shall submit an application to the Attorney General in such form and containing such information as the Attorney General may reasonably require.

In awarding grants under this subchapter, the Attorney General shall give priority to eligible applicants that did not have an unresolved audit finding during the 3 fiscal years before submitting an application for a grant under this subchapter. A recipient of grant funds under this subchapter that is found to have an unresolved audit finding shall not be eligible to receive grant funds under this subchapter during the first 2 fiscal years beginning after the end of the 12-month period described in subparagraph (A). (1) A certification that Federal funds made available under this subchapter will not be used to supplant State, local, or tribal funds, but will be used to increase the amounts of such funds that would, in the absence of Federal funds, be made available for the activities described in section 10701(a) of this title.

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions. Amendment by section 6105(d) of Pub. 100–690 effective June 1, 1988, see section 6105(e) of Pub.

It is not the interplay between abstract intellectual categories to which we must turn in order to validate the assumptions behind all our views. It is to experience itself-to natural and social history-that we must turn to test these assumptions. Not only in nature but also in “maternal care,” in the very cradle of human consociation itself, do we find a human “second nature” that is structured around nurture, support, and a deobjectified world of experience rather than a world guided by domination, self-interest, and exploitation. It is in this social cradle that the most fundamental canons of reason are formed. That fetid word “modernity”-and its confusion of personal atomization with “individuality”-may well demarcate an era in which the cra-dle of reason has finally been demolished. But Hegel’s notion of alienation is strictly theoretical.